Table relationships

Introduction

Bun can help you join and query other tables if you are using one of the 4 supported table relations:

For example, you can define Author belongs to Book relation:

type Book struct {
	ID		 int64
	AuthorID int64
	Author	 Author `bun:"rel:belongs-to,join:author_id=id"`
}

type Author struct {
	ID int64
}

And then use Relation method to join tables:

err := db.NewSelect().
	Model(book).
	Relation("Author").
	Where("id = 1").
	Scan(ctx)
SELECT
  "book"."id", "book"."title", "book"."text",
  "author"."id" AS "author__id", "author"."name" AS "author__name"
FROM "books"
LEFT JOIN "users" AS "author" ON "author"."id" = "book"."author_id"
WHERE id = 1

You can query from parent the child and vice versa in an has-one/belongs-to relation:

type Profile struct {
	ID     int64 `bun:",pk"`
	Lang   string
	UserID int64
	User *User `rel:"belongs-to"`
}

type User struct {
	ID      int64 `bun:",pk"`
	Name    string
	Profile *Profile `bun:"rel:has-one"`
}

err := db.NewSelect().
	Model(&user).
	Where("id = 1").
	Relation("Profile").
	Scan(ctx)

err := db.NewSelect().
	Model(&profile).
	Where("id = 1").
	Relation("User").
	Scan(ctx)

To select only book ID and the associated author id:

err := db.NewSelect().
	Model(book).
	Column("book.id").
	Relation("Author", func (q *bun.SelectQuery) *bun.SelectQuery {
		return q.Column("id")
	}).
    Where("id = 1").
	Scan(ctx)
SELECT "book"."id", "author"."id" AS "author__id"
FROM "books"
LEFT JOIN "users" AS "author" ON "author"."id" = "book"."author_id"
WHERE id = 1

To select a book and join the author without selecting it:

err := db.NewSelect().
	Model(book).
	Relation("Author", func (q *bun.SelectQuery) *bun.SelectQuery {
		return q.Exclude("*")
	}).
    Where("id = 1").
	Scan(ctx)
SELECT "book"."id"
FROM "books"
LEFT JOIN "users" AS "author" ON "author"."id" = "book"."author_id"
WHERE id = 1

To use INNER JOIN instead of LEFT JOIN:

err := db.NewSelect().
	Model(book).
	Relation("Author").
    Where("id = 1").
    Where("author.id IS NOT NULL").
	Scan(ctx)

Has one relation

To define a has-one relationship, add bun:"rel:has-one" tag to the field. In the following exampleopen in new window, we have User model that has one Profile model.

// Profile belongs to User.
type Profile struct {
	ID     int64 `bun:",pk"`
	Lang   string
	UserID int64
}

type User struct {
	ID      int64 `bun:",pk"`
	Name    string
	Profile *Profile `bun:"rel:has-one,join:id=user_id"`
}

You can specify multiple join columns, for example, join:id=user_id,join:vendor_id=vendor_id.

Belongs to relation

To define a belongs-to relationship, you need to add bun:"rel:belongs-to" tag to the field. In the the following exampleopen in new window we define Profile model that belongs to User model.

type Profile struct {
	ID   int64 `bun:",pk"`
	Lang string
}

// User has one profile.
type User struct {
	ID        int64 `bun:",pk"`
	Name      string
	ProfileID int64
	Profile   *Profile `bun:"rel:belongs-to,join=profile_id=id"`
}

You can specify multiple join columns, for example, join:profile_id=id,join:vendor_id=vendor_id.

Has many relation

To define a has-many relationship, add bun:"rel:has-many" to the field. In the following exampleopen in new window, we have User model that has many Profile models.

type Profile struct {
	ID     int64 `bun:",pk"`
	Lang   string
	Active bool
	UserID int64
}

// User has many profiles.
type User struct {
	ID       int64 `bun:",pk"`
	Name     string
	Profiles []*Profile `bun:"rel:has-many,join:id=user_id"`
}

You can specify multiple join columns, for example, join:id=user_id,join:vendor_id=vendor_id.

Polymorphic has many relation

You can also define a polymorphic has-many relationship by using type virtual column and polymorphic option.

In the following exampleopen in new window, we store all comments in a single table but use trackable_type column to save the model table to which this comment belongs to.

type Article struct {
	ID   int64
	Name string

	Comments []Comment `bun:"rel:has-many,join:id=trackable_id,join:type=trackable_type,polymorphic"`
}

type Post struct {
	ID   int64
	Name string

	Comments []Comment `bun:"rel:has-many,join:id=trackable_id,join:type=trackable_type,polymorphic"`
}

type Comment struct {
	TrackableID   int64  // Article.ID or Post.ID
	TrackableType string // "article" or "post"
	Text          string
}

Many to many relation

To define a many-to-many relationship, add bun:"m2m:order_to_items" to the field. You also need to define two has-one relationships on the intermediary model and manually register the model (db.RegisterModel).

In the following exampleopen in new window, we have Order model that can have many items and each Item can be added to multiple orders. We also use OrderToItem model as an intermediary table to join orders and items.

func init() {
    // Register many to many model so bun can better recognize m2m relation.
    // This should be done before you use the model for the first time.
    db.RegisterModel((*OrderToItem)(nil))
}

type Order struct {
	ID    int64  `bun:",pk"`
    // Order and Item in join:Order=Item are fields in OrderToItem model
	Items []Item `bun:"m2m:order_to_items,join:Order=Item"`
}

type Item struct {
	ID int64 `bun:",pk"`
}

type OrderToItem struct {
	OrderID int64  `bun:",pk"`
	Order   *Order `bun:"rel:belongs-to,join:order_id=id"`
	ItemID  int64  `bun:",pk"`
	Item    *Item  `bun:"rel:belongs-to,join:item_id=id"`
}
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